Dong Nai River Basin ( Nhon Trach , Long Thanh , Bien Hoa )
1.1 . Monuments :
Go Chieu Lieu relics , on the right bank of Hamlet Suoi New Land , Long Phuoc commune , Long Thanh district . This is a brick architecture , the center has a square base with an area of 4.80 mx 4.50 m . Around about 1.00 m thick walls , 0.65 m high , a north wall , built in the east - west length of 6.50 m . Between the brick foundation leaves a blank square , inside compacted clay , gravel and rubble . On the walls there are three evenly spaced holes aligned with holes perforated brick foundation parallel diameter of 0.40 m . Perhaps , this is the leg holes punched through brick columns after the architecture is built to roof architecture . Architectural monuments in the form of Hindu temples - Hindu . C14 dating of the relic radiation is 1900 ± 70 years ago (ie in the first century - II AD ) .
Mr. Tung Monuments Go Go monument is located about 100 m Chieu Lieu west . Monuments of this kind adobe architecture , building walls around 1.00 m thick , length of East - West 11.00 m wide north - south 7.00 m , 0.50 m from the east wall to build a four layers tiled floor area of 5.00 mx 4.00 m . The rest is compacted sand , gravel and clay 0.30 m thick plastic . There are 18 holes average diameter of 0.20 m - 0.40 m spaced unevenly . Probably the pore column . Monuments Go Mr. Tung has the same type of building monuments Go Chieu Lieu .
Go relic chamber B.Revertegat findings , reported in the Journal of Indochina Research Association ( BSEI ) in 1933 under the name State or election of Mat . Now of Hamlet II , Long Phuoc commune , Long Thanh district . The site is located on a hill high above the field 2 m , the East has a rectangular lake west - north square pool of water with traces obliterated . Monuments of architecture type of map tiles per rectangle around a wall thickness of 1.45 m, 0.80 m high also . Length east - west 16.00 meters , width of North - South 14.00 m . The direction of rotation of the eastern ruins , Zich zig edge on both sides creating smaller stores in between . In the ruins are separated into squares filled brick , stone and sand . In hundreds of relics discovered fragments of stone monuments , wheel , arm subjects , supporting leg , beads , stone beads , gold pieces , rattles , foot lamps and ceramic products , porcelain disturbed . The relics relics in Go suites:
- The engraved inscriptions were recorded on a beer fine sand stone , shattered . In the remaining 8 pieces that saved many free-form text ancient Sanskrit . A remaining 4 pieces of plain text with meaning ( according to Van Chai Thai translation ) as follows :
Question 1 : talk about fire ritual sacrifice of Brahmanism .
Question 2 : talk about impermanence doctrine in Hinduism ( Hindu ) in a separation of powers .
Question 3 : the general theory of impermanence , injustice , greed, selfishness of mankind on earth Hindus or Hinduism.
Question 4 : probably advice people should believe in the light of Indra which is typical Hindu .
- Wheels : including many pieces of sandstone equivalent quarter wheels intact . 0.44 m in diameter , carved from a block of natural stone , round in straight and evenly spaced 0.4 m is brake shoe ( spokes ) tidbits radial shape . Imagery like wheels belonged to the god Vishnu .
- Arms objects : relics scattered throughout , including 3 sections : a section from armpit to elbow ( 16.5 cm long ) , the fracture in the elbow have an arm like other adjacent , a passage from the pulp elbow to wrist ( 11 cm long ) , a piece of a broken hand but the fingers . The piece is made from sandstone . These are parts of the idol is worshiped in ruins .
- Piece of yellow rhombus is stamping , embossing edges connecting two parallel lines each , center hole and four grip round out the edges . Maybe this is art products to show the image the eyes are mounted between the forehead Siva idol or idols dressed on top .
- Rattles broken only bronze fourth round, not decorated .
- Leg Lamp is made of only copper cylindrical legs , four floating ledges on the body belt and docking round out the meniscus Grower , on two parallel ridges surrounding the base table . It could be used in animal sacrifice .
- Two beads : one bead Red agate stone ( cornaline ) , perforated body piercing straight to the wire , the glass beads in black , white , multicolor beads called ( poly chrome ) .
- Seeds transparent white quartz and blue glass beads . There are nearly rectangular shape up , on a flat surface , a meniscus , the edges are rounded , like taking care on jewelry .
- Pottery of many individuals , medium -sized and small , mainly two types : coarse pottery is made by hand , not decorated , made of fine ceramic turntable decorative motifs . Go relic chamber can be a large temple of Hindu residents . Chronology is predictable about the 10th century AD .
Cassava vestige of Phuoc Thien commune , Nhon Trach district . Here , there are two types of brick architecture along a stream has been completely destroyed . According to the description of local farmers , at two sites within the square shaped about 2.00 m deep , pounding cobblestone circle with clay , sand layer is finely final , including five gold pieces carved thin letters . Type vestige near Rach monuments like the engine is Hindu temples , dating from the eighth century - IX AD .
Ben Wood monuments located on the hill , the old pagoda in the background Long Buu Long Hung Commune , Long Thanh district . Relics is a pretty big brick architecture but Long Buu temple was later built over it so difficult to determine the type . Relics in ruins :
- Linga : sandstone , circular cylinder , broken only upper body and head ( 5.7 cm long , 4.4 cm wide ) . Single two parallel grooves and the first touch , posing as men of the gas . These are objects of Hindu worship .
- Pedestal : sandstone , square shapes , four equal sides ( length 0.60 m, height 0.18 m ) . The underside flat , surface surrounding ridges above . In between there are round holes where they should build churches animals . Trays are part of the final leg platform altar set includes : leg platform , square stone , table base , pedestal Yoni .
- Relief dancer shape : ( no artifacts intact ) sandstone showing two dancers were dancing . On the wide neck rings bibs , arm and wrist bracelets jewelry , body bare , even under the crossbar - empty . This frieze art style Three - banners , around the eleventh century AD .
- Relief Buddha heads : sandstone . Soybeans over on your left side , curling round three bands are represented by small squares . Chronology reliefs shaped as female dancers .
- Pointy tip : fine sandy clay . Smaller circular cylindrical shape of the tapered cone . The lower part of the belt to form large and small lotus -shaped . This is the decorations on the roof or wall architecture .
However, with the collected artifacts such as brick , spiers , Linga , Yoni , stone pedestals , bas-reliefs , statues ... where this can be a fairly large Hindu temple , about X century - XI AD .
The Relic Cave Monastery campus Ngoc Uyen , Buu Hoa Ward , Bien Hoa City . Relics excavation but the terrain here was bulldozed many times should not find this kind of architecture that are just collecting all kinds of artifacts .
- Sit ups : ( number 7 piece lot but still relatively intact ) clay paste, and hand -crafted molds . Shaped like a half pipe , a big head and a small head . In the middle of the knob used to have a key to the roof fixed architecture . Unequal size .
- Tile back : materials and processing techniques like sit ups , curved rectangular shape towards the two edges . Between the tiles sharp convex knob to keep the roof tiles fixed architecture . Technical roofing tile face - digital backs, like roofing tiles - positive today still popular but there is no fixed ending .
- Tile , valances : tile material , shape , same size as the tile backs , valances frame made of embossed leaf pattern threads two long parallel lines in the middle and short sides . Freemasonry was popular in the oval pattern , hook , how are S -shaped or pointy hat person's face . This type is usually mounted in the front roof tiles surrounding architecture .
- Spike : ( 19 specimens ) fine sandy clay . Processing techniques by means of coils . Circular cylinder , a tip , an early form of large and small convex belt like a lotus . The bottom plate attached to the curved tiles face down . Dimensions uneven spiers . Commonly used decorative spiers on the roof of buildings or on the fence .
Relics dating back about a century to predict X - XII AD .
Also on monuments are also some places where traces of ancient tiles or other architectural materials such as location Go Buong relic from 500 m to the east - north ; Nui Dat way location monuments Go Chieu Lieu about 3 km to the north ; campus locations hammer Son pagoda ( Hoa Binh ward , Bien Hoa City ) .
1.2 . Relics :
- Statue of Vishnu are found beneath the Dong Nai River from Hoa An bridge upstream about 500 m . Carved from sandstone blocks represents Vishnu in standing posture on a pedestal . The statue has four arms are broken away, wearing a helmet , body naked , wearing tattoos Pot below knee-length , waist tie front waistband gout . Support bar is the horizontal cylinder and ears on the pad but was broken. Statue of Vishnu with four hands holding each usually sacred objects such as screws ( cankha ) , rod , plate , wheel or sphere . It had belonged to the mythological god of the Hindu - Hinduism. The statue represents the period style art banners - was late , about the seventh century - VIII AD .
- Male god statue found near Hien Lam Pagoda , Hoa An commune , Bien Hoa city . Smooth sandstone statue in sitting cross-legged posture on square pedestal , lost his head and left hand , two hands on his knees . The statue represents Champa art style . But predictability is not dating .
- Brackets sandstone statue , discovered in Hoa An commune , Bien Hoa city . Two statues stand on a pedestal foot rectangular pin plug . Two feet parallel to upright posture objects , artifacts of unknown contours toes , ankle bracelets as jewelry accented the back heel conjoined broken pillars . Chan expresses characteristic art style Three - banners , around the eleventh century AD .
- Male god statue found in the Temple area Long Buu Long Hung Commune , Long Thanh district . Statue of sandstone , 1.14 m tall upright on a pedestal . The statue is broken into three sections , takes two hands and a right ear . Mukuta soybean hat shaped spiers , donuts scattered broad , neck rings affection , her bare , worn under short Pot tattoo , threading edge on waistband button in the middle column into the abdomen , buttocks horizontal bearing waist belt buckle front as two interlocking figure 8 , the following as butterfly , arm , wrist , ankle bracelets are ornaments , generate two rear heel support bar associated with the leg near the knee. Charisma Dvasapala objects like god ( god temple guards ) , showing art style Three - banners , around the eleventh century AD .
- The Buddha : found under the Dong Nai river and church in Quang Linh Ward 2 , District 4 , Ho Chi Minh City . Smooth sandstone statue meditation posture has a " full lotus " on his Naga , rear canopy with solid top 7 . Early Buddhist hat frustum carved stylized lotus petals . I bare , bottom edge wear tattoos Pot on breaking out. The statue represents Angco art style - Vat , about the twelfth century AD .
- Statue of prayer , found near her grandmother Hy temple in Dai Phuoc commune , Nhon Trach district . Smooth sandstone statue , bust forms , first broke lose . Two hands clasped over his chest as animal holding lotus flowers . The back is affixed to the pedestal , perhaps mounted on the architecture used Hindu temples . Statue of Champa art style , around the thirteenth century AD .
- Statue Ganesa : his elephant head was found on the banks of the Dong Nai River left bank located in Bien Hoa city . The statue was cast in bronze , in the upright position , lift the chest heliotrope , put forward two ears , a broken left hand , standing on a square pedestal edge 2.50 cm 0.90 cm high . Mukuta hat shaped spiers , neck , arm , wrist , ankle bracelets are jewelry , right hand holding the orb back . Body naked , wearing tattoos under long- Pot near the knees, hips brought back knotted belt butterfly . 12.30 cm high statue , art style Three - banners , around the eleventh century AD .
- Relief Vishnu ( Buu Son , Hoa Binh Ward , District. Bien Hoa ) : fine sandstone , seated poses a " lotus position " on a pedestal . Immediately leaned back into the stone slabs weird . Statue of four arms : two hands before putting on her knees holding two mace , then held up his hands to her shoulders , left hand holding screws ( cankha ) , the right hand plate . Cylindrical hat , ear jewelry put two shoulders , neck plate wearing overalls , arm , elbow , wrist , ankle bracelets are ornaments . Body naked , wearing shoulder cords , less wear tattoos Pot front visor . Plate behind the title reliefs carved inscriptions interspersed words from the ancient Champa San Krit . Vishnu reliefs showing two art styles Tower Man - Yang Mun , around the fifteenth century .
- The content of the reliefs or inscriptions ( based on the French translation A.Cabaton ) as follows : " The son of King Sri Jaya Simhavarman , Nauk Glaun Vijaya kingdom protection . He defeated kingdom of Annam . He went and returned to battle , captured Brah Kand origin . He has won many battles and return to the kingdom of Champa . In Saka specified by the world , sixty ( or eight ) ; 3 sticks ( or flame ) . He did this by building statues Tribhuvanakranta booty seized from Khmer people . He always gave the spoils to the property that makes sense , the various Linga and never enjoy it again , either in territory or in territory Cham Khmer " .
Chronology Louis Finot be determined in Saka 1343 , or 1421 AD, related to kings and princes Sri Simhavarman V Vijaya Glaun Nauk .
Group relics smooth slate includes : Yoni square edges 1.00 m 0.18 m thick , sugary burst slot , a groove around the edge to create a flowing gutter . In between there is a rectangular hole through the bottom , can be used to plug Linga worship materials . Altar : cylindrical body shape . Surrounding yourself carved lotus pedestal eight evenly spaced wing , in the center circle punch body piercing . Large diameter of 1.25 m, 0.30 m high . Three rectangular cloth is refined , polished . It is possible that the transverse momentum where doors or stairs where the main gate architecture . Chronology of relics group VII century - VIII AD .
Group reliefs humanoid ( Marble Temple , Quang Vinh Ward , Dist. Bien Hoa ) : equilateral triangle shape , convex in the middle and gradually curved sides . Reliefs showing humanoid torso , conical hat , two arm attachments chest posture of prayer . Under perforated circular pedestal probably keep using key reliefs . Sacred objects shaped reliefs : reliefs showing convex cylindrical standing between two symmetrical curved line side as the Omega oval ( like a sacred flame ) . Group reliefs showing Champa art style , chronic low stage , XIII century - AD XIV .
Group relics discovered under the Dong Nai River - From Turtle Island to Cu Lao She Lao Sang ( Ben Wood ) including : Hand grinding : ( 18 units ) fine sandstone . Consists of two parts : a flat rectangular surface grinding , uneven size , average length of about 29 cm - 56 cm , width 12 cm - 22 cm , height 8 cm - 21 cm . Brackets smaller square blocks of the body . Dating from the eighth century - IX AD .
Roller ( baseball crusher ) : 11 templates , sandstone smooth , convex cylindrical first two round , 20 cm length - 30 cm , diameter 6 cm - 9 cm . Table roller mill and two adjacent tool used to grind food items . Dating from the fifth century - IX AD .
Mortar , pestle : sandstone . Geneva took part base , flared mouth as sloping towards the funnel-shaped , embossed base three adjacent edges , in carved deep concave . Baseball prismatic flat , a small head , a round convex head , 12.4 cm long , 5.80 cm diameter head . Mortar pestle are two tools used to adjoining food prices . Dating from the fifth century - IX AD .
Warm Kendy : made from clay , crafted turntable . Mouth flaring , high neck , small , flattened globular body , high base , carved around the body just sank , enamelled body . Dating from the seventh century - VIII AD .
Round : fine clay , made turntable . Mouth clamped circular indentations have to keep covered . Body narrowed down to the bottom , parallel bar decoration and form large enamelled daisies . Carafes small ( 10 units ) clay , manipulated digital turntable , round body shape decorated with lotus petals sinking lines and are not enamelled . Dating back to the IX century - X AD .
Rating the trunk : ( 6 units ) with clay . Mouth wide , low neck , body rotation , low heel , shoulder -mounted faucets , decorative lines around the shoulder stand only thin enamelled . Rating the facilities ( including 60 pcs ) almost no intact clay . Body shaped like the convenience , flared mouth , high neck , small bottom . On the decorative motifs , often covered with brown glaze , black . The largest 53 cm high , 8.3 cm high minimum . Group average is crafted turntable , dating from the eleventh century - XIII AD .
Group exhibits include : chum ( 3 units ) are manufactured according to methods coils combined with turntable . Incised decorative motifs , gray enamel coating . Europe ( 6 units ) wide mouth and small concave edge towards the bottom , low heel . Around dark brown enamel coating . Pointy -bottomed flasks ( 4 units ) funnel shaped body , small round mouth , no neck , broad shoulders and smaller on the bottom . Rating bottom of the pyramid ( 4 pcs ) Body Balance, small short neck , round body with engraved decoration lines and forbidden bands around . Rating rhombus round convex bottom ( 3 units ) flared mouth oblique , mid-sized , flattened body , rounded convex bottoms , decorative motifs sink and black enamel coating , gold . Choe ( 3 units ) small mouth slightly flared , rounded body and smaller on the bottom , adorned with bar sink line . Group objects , mostly crafted turntable , dating back to the XI century - XIII AD .
In addition to the artifacts found above, there are some relics of documents previously recorded , discovered in Bien Hoa area , but most are no longer present . In this issue , including : statues gods ( 2 cheese ) are found in L.Malleret Buu Son (now Ward Hoa Binh . Bien Hoa ) and Giac Pagoda ( Hiep Hoa City . Bien Hoa ) . The two statues are not intact : take the head , hands and feet . Smooth sandstone statue , god men shown in an upright position with bare head , foot tattoos wearing tight Pot . Wearing waist lock , rear butterfly knot . Three statues style - banners , dating from the tenth century - XI AD .
Group Statue by George Mignon detected in Buu An ( An Hoa commune , Long Thanh district ) , sandstone statue represents the goddess standing with four arms but only holding shells left behind . Cylindrical hat rack resting on an arc , long ear hole jewelry . One other objects collected in the canal due Revertegat Wang Cai ( Long Hung Commune , Long Thanh district ) stone statues , four hands , wearing a helmet , foot pedal on the first buffalo . Perhaps this is the victory goddess Uma buffalo demon . This group art style money Aerials - co ; century VI - VIII AD .
In addition, there are some subjects that mainly target Ganesa ( the elephant-headed himself ) found in Buu Thanh ( Bien Hoa ) , in the fields of Long Hung , Long Thanh district ... but was displaced .