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The vestiges of national culture on the Dong Nai - Part I

The vestiges of national culture on the Dong Nai - Part I​

Funan kingdom with Oc Eo culture and the cultural traces ( approximately from the first century to the sixth century AD )

    In early AD, Funan Kingdom ( Fou - Nan ) formed in southern Indochina , the management of a large area of water including Cambodia , Southern Thailand , Laos part , and to all South Pass Both today. Funan Residents include many of the same people Anhdonedieng tribal , linguistic Asia - South Island , Hindu - Hinduism. Ba Phnom east longitude in Sanskrit is called Vyadhapura , Preyven this province ( southeast Cambodia ) , open trade ports in Oc Eo near Ba The mountain province of An Giang today .

    In the past century, traces of the Kingdom of Funan almost been forgotten , until the 40 years of the twentieth century , after the great archaeological excavations in the ruins of Oc Eo ( Thoai Son - An Giang ) new the interest of scientific research . French School of the Far Northeast ( EFEO ) considered the physical product in the ruins of the Oc Eo civilization called Funan and Oc Eo culture . To date , hundreds of large relics have been unearthed in researching the southwest . In particular , the coastal monument was conceived as " Funan sea " ( Fou Nan maritime ) , the monument in areas of high Lower Mekong region is considered " domestic Funan " ( Fou Nan continental ) . Then , the concept of cultural traces Funan only distributed in western Hau river .

    The excavated ruins of this kind of research often remains residence , relics temple architecture , archaeological architecture is conceived cremation grave ... frame dating from I to VI century AD . During the monument also collects a large volume of artifacts typical development industries handicraft production such as pottery , copper , iron , tin and jewelery with fine carvings on stone , jade is very delicate ; statuary art is also quite sophisticated . Especially in the distribution monument near the west coast of the neck - as relics South Oc Eo ( An Giang ) , The Temple , Temple Competition ( Kien Giang ) and many artifacts related to the activities of international trade exchanges like the Roman coins , stamps - touch pendants bring traditional pattern Persian art , India , the mirror and the Three Kingdoms , the bronze statues of the Northern Wei Buddha ( China ) . There is also a large number of types of beads , pendants with precious stones , glass , onyx real , fake onyx , gold , tin .... Notably, the stone tablet found , these inscriptions , the small objects such as seals , jewelery , amulets worn copper , tin , gold , onyx carving much kanji , Malaysia , Latin , Sanskrit . In that Sanskrit ( Sanskrit ) majority with the script used in India from the second century - V AD .

    Along the south coast , archaeologists also found the same kind of jewelry in ruins Arikamedu ( southeast India ) , Man Tai ( Sri Lanka ) , Khuan Pat Lak , Khuan Spray Pin , Phu Khao Thong , Yarang , U Thong, Chan Sen , Pathom ( South Thailand ) , Kuala Selingsing ( North Malaysia ) .... These ruins are dating from the first century - VI AD . They are considered medium where both production and product exchange with the port city of Oc Eo sea port road from India to South China . At the same time as the first exchange for economic and cultural areas inland delta of the river Menam Chao Phrya (Thailand ) , Inrawaddy ( Myanmar ) , the Mekong River ( South Vietnam ) and Tonle wax ( Cambodian ) .

    The land to the east - north of the southern delta downstream of the Dong Nai River is considered " domestic Funan " in the 80s of XX century , Malleret detect a known location or Bau Bau The Statue ( Mare aux Elephants ) in the province of Ba Ria - Vung Tau , collecting two roller stone and ceramic pieces close to Oc Eo pottery . On a hill in the west of Dua Beach ( Vung Tau ) also found a warehouse of gold jewelry , silver 58 type earrings, gold rings , beads , strap hangers , screws and pieces of gold stamping shaped stones precious jewelry attached . This is the product of Oc Eo culture .

In Dong Nai has four relics are considered precursors Oc Eo culture .

    On ancient alluvial soil of Long Phuoc commune , Long Thanh district discovered two architectural monuments Chieu Lieu Go , Go Mr. Tung is east - west , a distance of 100 m .

    Two monuments built almost the same, the plan has a rectangular , brick wall around the building , vented center is a square church . On the walls and floor tiles found many round holes perforated through the column after brick architecture was built . Radioactive C14 dating results in 1900 ± 70 years ago when, in the first century AD - AD II .

    In the Tri An reservoir area Cay Gao commune , Vinh Cuu district discovered two architectural monuments Cay Gao I and II are separated by about 60 meters north - south , on the banks of the Dong Nai river left bank . Two monuments are the scheme of rectangular architecture , surrounded by thick walls , vented center is a square church , found on the walls of the pores circular column through perforated tiles . Radioactive C14 dating results in 1700 ± 45 years ago when, in the third century AD .

Relics found in the architectural monuments not much beyond crude pottery , fine mapping of multiple target container material shape similar to traditional ceramic Oc Eo culture .

    The architectural monuments were built in Dong Nai adobe ( sun-dried bricks or baked over a fire ) , the form of the Hindu Temple - Hinduism. On the brick architecture is an architecture other light materials ( wood - bamboo - leaf ) roof cover . Hindu temples in India have long been built of stone , hewn rustic mountain or brick rather than using lightweight materials such as Dong Nai and South .

    These types of architectural monuments Hindu temples - Hindu dating in Dong Nai quite early compared to the same period in the ruins of the South , structural masonry materials - wood , it is likely that traces Oc Eo culture beginning in the South before the formation of the Oc Eo port . According to ancient Indian letter - the Chinese trade activities , cultural exchange between residents Thien Truc - resident Indian and Southeast Asia that took place quite soon discovered many archaeological sites located along the coast marine and inland Southeast Asian trade products dating back as early as the fourth century - III BC . At that time , the Gio is the first port for economic exchange - culturally important in the Dong Nai . Maybe architectural form Hindu temples - Hindu was first introduced here , then moved west to Southern ports forming the Oc Eo . Construction materials brick architecture - wood is in place innovative products , combining both traditional and exotic native .

     Traditional indigenous architecture derived from the floor, this type of architecture left behind many traces in the primitive state at various locations in the wetlands , low -lying , riverine wetlands ancient , ancient coastal the vestiges of the previous era metal and ongoing legacy centuries AD . This is an important component in the form of temple architecture of residents Oc Eo culture . The widespread and enduring architectural floor in coastal areas and the Mekong River Delta shows strong vitality and its position in the receiving end and exotic architecture implementation .

     Traditional brick techniques must be imported from India in the same time with the products originating from India through trade is quite common to find in the ruins in the area . But until the kingdom of Funan formation , spread Hindu new career as a brick thrive to meet the religious needs .

    The Indian products can be transported over sea , originating from South India in the commercial port is a hub Arikamedu production and export of all kinds of beads ( which today is known as Pondicherry ) , take a boat across the bay Tapes Gan , stop in Perak ( Kuala Selinsing where relics ) . From Peninsular Malaysia Perak crossed by road , boat goes down along the Gulf of Thailand ( where the relics Ban Don Ta Phet ) and on the East Coast. From here go along the coast of the Mekong Delta ( then still muddy ) to Vung Tau to Dong Nai River estuary - Soai Rap .

     Architectural monuments Chieu Lieu Go , Go Mr. Tung , Gao Plants I and II are built Cay Gao style of Hindu temples - Hindu dating from the first century AD - AD II . This is evidence of " India " of the earliest on the southern delta region of Vietnam. This temple is a place to spread the Hindu religion and civilization to the Indian communities in the region . The architectural heritage is not copying the original works of India that it was built with a combination of two traditional indigenous culture and Hindu culture . In fact they are the Hindu temple has been localized to adapt to the natural environment and human on earth Dong Nai .

    Thus, since the nation's founding Funan , building Oc Eo culture Century I - VI AD that zenith in the third century - the fourth in Southeast Asia . Dong Nai region from a major cultural center prehistoric prelude to invading Indian civilization and gradually lost its strategic position to make room for the birth an economic center - a new culture in the Mekong delta - Hau river west to the Port relics Oc Eo ( An Giang ) , Next to Temple ( Kien Giang ) large scale . Therefore, the Oc Eo culture relics and cultural products featured on the Dong Nai its not as dense and rich in the Mekong Delta .

Atlas of Dong Nai Province

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Managing agency: Office of Dong Nai Provincial People's Committee.
Main responsibility: Mr. Nguyen Kim Long - Chief of Office of Dong Nai Provincial People's Committee.
Address: No. 02 Nguyen Van Tri, Thanh Binh ward, Bien Hoa city, Dong Nai province.
Phone: (0251).3847292.
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Chung nhan Tin Nhiem Mang